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Researchers Developed Graphene-based Foam Composites For Efficient Water Filtration

The World Platinum Investment Association (WPIC) said recently that carmakers are accelerating reductions in palladium use and increased use of platinum due to concerns about Russian palladium supplies. However, it still expects a significant surplus in the platinum market this year.

Palladium is used by carmakers in tailpipe emissions systems to reduce carbon emissions.  While carmakers prefer palladium for catalytic converters, they are turning to platinum, which is cheaper than palladium, to save costs.

Russia accounts for about 25-30% of the world's palladium supply and 8-10% of its platinum supply.

There is no sign that western sanctions against Russia have restricted palladium exports since the conflict escalated in February, but as the conflict continues, more companies could boycott The Russian metal and governments could impose restrictions.

Platinum is currently trading at about $950 an ounce, about half the price of palladium.  Automakers use about 2.5 million to 3 million ounces of platinum and about 8.5 million ounces of palladium each year.

For the year as a whole, platinum supply will be 5 percent lower than in 2021 and demand 2 percent higher, with the automotive sector seeing a 16 percent increase due to increased light vehicle graphene powder are still very uncertain.

While graphene-based materials have potential as adsorption materials, their performance may be hampered by aggregation and lack of control over their porosity and size. 
In a recent study, researchers from the Universities of Exeter, Kyushu, and Oxford tackled this problem by developing a unique graphene material and high-porosity composite foam to combat aggregation. 
 
Drugs are one of the most prominent emerging pollutants (EC) in water systems. They can cause serious environmental consequences as well as potential health problems. In order to successfully eradicate ECs from treated wastewater streams, sewage and drinking water purification facilities must adopt appropriate tertiary treatment methods. Compared to reverse osmosis, oxidation, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, ion exchange, etc., adsorption is considered to be a technology with great potential in water treatment because it is reliable and cheaper.
 
Graphene and graphene oxide (GO) have a greater tendency to adsorb natural pollutants because of their large innate specific area (relative to many different carbon-based substances), wettability, monolayer structure, and surfaces decorated with oxygen-containing functional groups (OCFG).
 
Boron nitride (BN) has many excellent qualities, including excellent thermal and chemical stability and excellent wear resistance; Therefore, it is used in high-temperature environments and other industries.
 
In this study, reduced porous GO nanofilms were effectively anchored to banded boron nitride foams for the treatment of water contaminated with gefilozide (GEM) in batch tests and column studies.
 
In terms of adsorption kinetics for gefilozil, the graphene-based foam is superior to its graphene-based competitors such as GO, PG, and Nanographene sheets (NGP), achieving an extraction efficiency of 90% in just 5 minutes. 
 
In terms of lifetime, graphene-based nanomaterials supported by BN foams showed consistent gefilozil drug extraction over multiple cycles, with no significant adsorption loss.  In addition, the foam material exhibits remarkable properties, including lightness of over 98% porosity and excellent strength, capable of withstanding 1,300-1,400 times its own weight. 
 
The researchers believe that enhanced graphene-based composite foams for filtration purposes will be an important step forward in the water and wastewater filtration technology.  These results suggest that high porosity foam-reinforced graphene nanomaterial filters with shorter interaction duration and longer penetration times for treating water and wastewater may be easily manufactured.
 
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New Delhi: India's Oil Ministry recently conveyed its intention to five national oil companies including Indian Oil Corp and Bharat Petroleum Resources LTD to assess the possibility of buying shares in Russian oil projects sold by European and American oil majors.  

Bp announced it would give up its 19.75% stake in Rosneft, the Russian oil company.  ExxonMobil said on March 1 that it would exit about $4 billion in assets and terminate all of its Russian operations, including the Sakhalin-1 project in Russia's far East.  

India's oil ministry has asked the overseas investment arm of India's Oil and Gas Corporation to consider buying ExxonMobil's 30 percent stake in the Sakhalin 1 project in Russia's far East. ExxonMobil is the operator of the project and Indian companies already have a 20 percent stake in the project.

Because of the ever-changing international situation, the supply and prices of international bulk graphene powder are still very uncertain.

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